A study by USA Armed Forces Health Surveillance Centre found that for all military personnel medically evacuated from Iraq and Afghanistan between 2001 and 2012, the most frequent diagnosis was not physical battle wounds but “”adjustment reaction,”” presenting: grief, anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, mental disorders, and suicide.
Maguen and Litz forerunner researchers in moral injury, report that military personnel in combat and war operational experiences are confronted with ethical and moral challenges that may transgress deeply held beliefs undergirding a service member’s humanity. This serious inner conflict born from an experience at odds with core ethical and moral beliefs is called Moral Injury.
-The most serious blind spot in military suicides is an absence of discussions about the moral impact of military training and its implementation in combat, e.g.: soldiers are trained to kill, which is regarded as criminal behaviour in civilian life.
-Moral injury is not PTSD. PTSD is an immediate injury of trauma, presenting: flashbacks, nightmares, dissociative episodes and hyper-vigilance.
-Moral injury has a slow burn quality that often takes time to sink in. To be morally injured requires a healthy brain that can experience empathy, create a coherent memory narrative, understand moral reasoning and evaluate behaviour.
-Moral injury is a negative self-judgment based on having transgressed core moral beliefs and values or on feeling betrayed by authorities.
-Moral injury is reflected in the destruction of a moral identity and loss of meaning.
-Symptoms include shame, survivor guilt, depression, despair, addiction, distrust, anger, a need to make amends and the loss of a desire to live.
There is a possibility , though not yet explored by author, that Moral Injury could also be present in T&T survivorswho have faced e.g., moral choices, and suffered, witnessed or perpetratedviolence, rape, sex-slavery, human traffic, etc. In which case it is presumed,it could negatively impact resettlement, health and wellbeing.
Megan Levy, Association of Service for Torture and Trauma Survivors (ASeTTS), WA Australia
- В этом все и. - Мидж… - Доброй ночи, Чед. - Она направилась к двери.