The Common Origins of the World’s Major Religions Essay
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The Common Origins of the World’s Major Religions
All too often in modern society it is the differences and conflicts that serve to separate religious groups that are emphasized. The mainstream media, fundamentalists’ propaganda, and other sources choose to ignore the numerous similarities that many religions share, and instead focus on the divisive elements. In this paper, I will attempt to shed light on the many commonalities in dogma that I believe exist between the major religions of the world. I also want to illustrate the fact that in addition to having similar core teachings, many religions have histories that have either endured or arisen during times of persecution. It is ironic that in many cases, the persecution that a…show more content…
Judaism The Jewish Bible points to Abraham and the covenant that God made with him in the Book of Genesis. Yahweh’s people as they are known, today Jews account for over fourteen million people. Throughout their history, Jews have been persecuted for their faith as much as, if not more than the followers of any other faith. From having the first temple of Jerusalem destroyed by the Babylonians in 586BC to internment in Nazi concentration camps in the twentieth century, Jews communities have remained solidly united through belief in the Diaspora and the goal of reestablishing the state of Israel. Finally, in 1948, Israel once again regained its sovereignty; however, this has not brought an end to the suffering and conflict that seems to have characterized Jewish life since its inception. Central to Jewish dogma, is adherence to the Torah, or the Jewish Bible. The Torah, which is composed primarily of the first five books of the Bible: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. While the most notable split from traditional Judaism can be seen in the origins of Christianity, other breakings include Conservative and Reform movements in the nineteenth century. One of the greatest prophets in the Jewish tradition is Moses. Living at around the thirteenth century BC, Moses is accredited with delivering the Jewish Israelites from the harsh oppression of the
Joachim Wach was born in 1898 in Chemnitz, Saxony and died in 1955. Wach insisted there was a definite distinction between the history of religion and the philosophy of religion. He felt an inquiry into the difference must be carried out by employing the religo-scientific method (Religionswissenschaft).
Published by Macmillan Publishing Company, 866 third Avenue, New York, NY 10022, in 1988. This material was prepared for Religion Online by Ted & Winnie Brock.
(ENTIRE BOOK) This book is a collection of essays by Joachim Wach representing each major phase of his scholarly career. Wach emphasizes that both historical and systematic dimensions are necessary to its task, and he argues that the discipline’s goal is "understanding."
This introduction by Kitagawa is a biography of Wach. He began his teaching career in Germany which ended in 1935 under pressure of the Nazis because of his Jewish lineage, even though the family had been Christian for four generations. Thereafter he taught in the U.S. at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island and later at the University of Chicago.
The student admires in the teacher the greatness and significance of his learning; and his merit consists in his willingness to give freely of this treasure. The student is dear to the teacher to the extent that he is willing to open himself to the teacher’s communication; the student’s value depends on his individual success or failure to appropriate the subject matter. This entire relationship is born and lives by means of the common interest in the object of study. A diversion from it results in the disintegration of the relationship between them.
Mahayana Buddism’s philosophy and its way of looking at the world along with its attitudes toward God, toward mankind, and toward the world are discussed along with how its piety determines its ethic.
Wilhelm Von Humboldt was a Protestant in whose worldview Hellenism strongly colored Christianity. He looked to metaphysics or philosophy for justification. Language, to him was the medium in which he followed the growth and articulation of human freedom. He devoted profound and penetrating thought to the nature of speech, to the structure of language, to its psychological and sociological problems, to its typology and its function in the development of human civilization.
Sociology of religion shares with the sociology of other activities of man certain problems and, in addition, has its own problems due to the peculiar nature of religious experience and its expression. The greatest differences and varieties can be found in the structures of religious groups. The French School of Sociology of Religion, the German, the English, the North American, are discussed, along with expressions of concern to those interested in the systematic development of the temporal, the spatial, the ethnic and cultural, and the religious viewpoint.
The challenge by Christian critics of Hinduism — Radhakrishnan’s own faith — impelled him at the time of his student-days at Madras to "make a study of Hinduism and find out what is living and what is dead in it." Again and again in writings, he has traced historically phases of development in Western (Greek and Christian) and Indian (Brahmanic, Hindu and Buddhist) religious thought, and has analyzed in systematic fashion basic notions in Hinduism and Christianity.
Wach divides American religious groups into a trichotomy — ecclesiastical bodies, denominations, and sects. The nature of American religion is discussed as a function of these divisions.
Whatever the teachers approach, it will have to be adapted to the special needs and demands of each successive generation. However there are certain requirements for teaching the History of Religions: Instruction in the field must be 1. integral; 2. competent; 3. existentially concerned; 4. selective; 5. balanced; 6. imaginative.
All theories of understanding which try to analyze its nature and the stages of its development will have to begin with a concept of existence, and this means, implicitly if not explicitly, with a metaphysical decision. As I see it, there exist three possibilities which I should like to call the materialistic, the psychophysical and the spiritual interpretations of existence.